December 5, 2006 

'Inside Hydraulics' Newsletter

1. A Kalashnikov? Really? That's scary
2. Storing hydraulic cylinders - Part 2
3. How to reduce hydraulic system noise
4. Content for your web site or e-zine
5. Help us spread the word
6. Tell us what you think


A Kalashnikov? Really? That's scary

Back in October I told you about a new self-study course and textbook I'm developing with my friend and colleague, Marian Tumarkin. In response to this article, one of our newsletter members wrote me the following message:

"Brendan, I had the pleasure of being one of Dr Tumarkin's students a couple of years ago at Swinburne University - what a great guy. He's a great teacher and a man who loves his Kalashnikov and a glass of vodka. The University lost a real source of expert knowledge when he left ..."

Well, I already knew Marian was a clever guy. And I knew about the vodka. In fact, the last time I had a couple of vodkas with Marian ... well let's just say if it wasn't for the intervention of his lovely wife - things could have got out of hand.

But a Kalashnikov? You mean the good Doctor packs an AK-47? Boy am I glad I wasn't rude when I went to his house. Anyway, I thought I'd better ask Marian to clarify this - from a safe distance of course.

Marian explained it's not true - just an urban myth. That he's simply a fan of the man - Mikhail Kalashnikov, the self-taught inventor and design engineer.

Now that we've cleared-up that matter, I just want to add that Marian is also an expert in electro-hydraulic proportional and servo control. If this is an area that you are not familiar with or would like to understand better, I strongly recommend our latest instant knowledge report: Electro-Hydraulic Control Systems: An Introduction to Proportional and Servo Hydraulics available here. If you want to keep up with where hydraulics is heading, then this is essential knowledge. Other titles in the series can be viewed at

"As a mechanic with more than 30 years experience, I think Industrial Hydraulic Control is excellent. I use it as my hydraulics reference." Find out more ...

R. Soebandi
Equipment Maintenance Supervisor
Oilfield Service Company

2.   Storing hydraulic cylinders - Part 2

In last month's newsletter I discussed the procedure I use when preparing hydraulic cylinders for storage. If you missed it or for a recap, it's available here.

In response to this article, one of our members sent in this question:

"One issue I feel you left out of the cylinder storage issue is the orientation question. How should a cylinder be orientated for short term or long term storage?

Our company repairs and evaluates cylinders and their associated failures. We try to provide solutions for breakdowns as well as repairing those that have failed. We evaluate and repair approximately 1000 cylinders annually. One common issue has been seal failure particularly in large pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders. We have found that allowing cylinders to lay flat has a direct effect on piston and rod seal failures. We have instituted a cylinder storage standard that adheres to your recommendations as far as ports plugged, rods wrapped but in addition mandates that all cylinders are stored vertically - in such a position as not to distort or place the weight of the cylinder on the rod seals. This verticality also helps, we feel, the piston seals.

I wouldn't mind hearing your argument on this issue

Hmmm. I intentionally didn't mention it because I didn't want to do anything to perpetuate the myth. Because based on my experience, that's exactly what it is. Two cases I was indirectly involved in come to mind. In both cases the cylinders in question were off 400 ton mining-size hydraulic excavators. We are talking here about cylinders that weigh between two and three tons. The piston rod typically weighs well over a ton by itself.

So you have a situation where big, expensive, high-pressure cylinders are suffering premature seal failures. In both cases, the machine operators sought the advice of "seal experts". The recommendation of these supposed experts was to store the cylinders vertically.

Let's consider the reality of this nonsense:

Someone drops a three ton cylinder with a closed length of four meters at your feet and tells you to store it vertically - so it doesn't fall over and destroy itself - or worse still, kill someone. Not a five-minute job, but possible I suppose.

A truck arrives to transport the cylinder to a remote mine-site. The route consists of 1,000 miles of rough, unsealed road. Given you have gone to the trouble of storing the cylinder vertically in the warehouse, surely you must insist that it is transported in the same orientation? I mean, if it can't be stored horizontally in a shed, then surely the pounding it is going to get if it's laid down on the back of a truck will turn the seals into mush, right? The truck driver thinks you're crazy but he doubles his rate and obliges anyway.

The cylinder arrives at the mine-site in the mandated vertical position. Trouble is it's a stick cylinder so it's orientation on the machine is horizontal. If the bearing bands on the piston and in the gland can't adequately support the piston rod and prevent it from distorting the seals when the cylinder is sitting in a shed or bouncing around on the back of a truck, how on earth will it cope with the thrust developed when it goes into service on a 400 ton excavator?

Common sense would tend to suggest that if the bearing bands have sufficient area and are correctly tolerenced to adequately support load-induced thrust without distorting the seals, then surely they will cope with the static weight of the piston-rod in storage and any dynamic loading that may occur during transport?

Whether you agree with this assessment or not, you know troubleshooting is a process of elimination. So when seal failures continue to occur even after the cylinders have been stored vertically well it's safe to say that's not the root cause of the problem. And that was the outcome in the two situations I mentioned above. No surprise to me.

That's my take on this issue, but I know our readership includes more than a few hard-core cylinder men. I'm sure if any of them have a different perspective on this, I'll feel the heat coming from my inbox over the next few days. So stay tuned ...

"This book has the potential to save many organizations lots of m0ney. It should be on the bookshelf of every engineer, supervisor, planner and technician that deals with hydraulic equipment... it's worth its weight in gold." Find out more

Alexander (Sandy) Dunn
Plant Maintenance Resource Center

3.   How to reduce hydraulic system noise

For some practical tips on reducing noise emissions from hydraulic systems, read Brendan Casey's article in the September-October 2006 Issue of Machinery Lubrication magazine, available here. To receive a complimentary subscription to this informative magazine (US and Canada only) go to:

4. Content for your web site or e-zine

Need some fresh content for your web site or e-zine? You now have permission to reprint these 'Inside Hydraulics' articles on your web site or in your e-zine, provided:

1. Each article is printed in its full form with no changes.

2. You send an e-mail to to advise us where you'll be publishing them.

3. You include the following acknowledgement at the end of each article:
About the Author: Brendan Casey has more than 17 years experience in the maintenance, repair and overhaul of mobile and industrial hydraulic equipment. For more information on reducing the operating cost and increasing the uptime of your hydraulic equipment, visit his web site:

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